What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects millions worldwide, yet its nuances often elude many. Recognizing the signs and symptoms is crucial for timely intervention and effective management.


What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Asthma?

People of all ages can suffer from the chronic respiratory disease known as asthma. It results in breathing becoming more difficult because of inflammation and tightness of the muscles surrounding the airways. This condition leads to narrowed and swollen airways, which can often be caused by the production of excess mucus. Symptoms vary in severity, ranging from mild to severe, and can fluctuate over time.

Individuals suffering from asthma may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, persistent coughing, audible wheezing on exhale, and a general sense of respiratory distress. Severe cases may make it difficult to speak or engage in physical activities. It is classified as a chronic respiratory condition and frequently referred to as “bronchial asthma.”

While asthma lacks a definitive cure, effective symptom management is achievable with the right treatment. Collaboration with healthcare specialists is necessary due to the constantly changing characteristics of asthma, which requires continual monitoring and modifications to the treatment strategy. This blog seeks to provide a full exploration of asthma, including its signs, symptoms, and accessible treatment approaches, clearly and simply.

Understanding the Impact of Asthma & How it Feels

Asthma is a condition where the tubes in your lungs get inflamed, causing excessive mucus production. When this happens, people with asthma feel symptoms like tightness, inflammation, or mucus filling up their airways. If asthma isn’t treated properly, it can mess up sleep, make you tired during the day, and make it hard to focus. Families of those with asthma might face challenges like missing school or work, which can also impact their finances and the community. In severe cases, asthma can turn into an emergency, and you might need urgent healthcare. Sometimes, it’s serious enough that you have to go to the hospital for treatment and monitoring, and in really bad situations, it could even lead to death.

Now, there are three main signs of asthma: blocked airways, inflammation, and sensitive airways. These can show up as coughing, especially at night or in the morning, wheezing (that whistle sound when you breathe), feeling out of breath, or having a tight, pressured, or painful chest. However, not everyone feels the same symptoms. Some people have different signs, or they might pop up at different times. While some people with asthma can go for extended periods of time without experiencing any symptoms, others have to deal with them on a daily basis. Early identification and management of even minor symptoms is critical. It helps to prevent major panic attacks and keeps asthma under control. So, understanding and taking care of those early signs is crucial to making sure asthma doesn’t get out of hand.

Types of Asthma 

Asthma is classified according to severity, and healthcare experts primarily distinguish between intermittent and persistent asthma. Intermittent asthma has an irregular pattern, with symptoms arriving and vanishing, allowing people to function normally in between asthma attacks.

Persistent asthma, on the other hand, is characterised by symptoms that last for an extended period and range in severity from mild to severe. This classification helps in the development of successful treatment options, ensuring a customised approach to managing asthma based on its unique characteristics. Recognising these differences is essential for providing targeted and personalised care to asthma patients.

Here are the various types of asthma, each classified according to its underlying cause.

1. Allergic Asthma (Atopic Asthma)

Allergic asthma is triggered by allergens like mould, pollen, pet dander, or dust mites. When exposed to these substances, individuals with allergic asthma may experience asthma symptoms.

2. Seasonal Asthma

Some people experience asthma symptoms only during specific times of the year, such as the hay fever season or colder weather. While asthma is a chronic condition, individuals may experience symptom-free periods when triggers are absent. This highlights the crucial importance of consistently following asthma action plans to manage and prevent symptoms effectively.

3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

For individuals who haven’t been diagnosed with asthma but face symptoms such as chest tightness, breathlessness, coughing, or fatigue during or after exercise, there may be a possibility of exercise-induced asthma. It’s common to experience these symptoms during physical activity, so consulting a doctor is crucial for confirmation. Lung function tests, like spirometry, can help rule out asthma and provide a clear understanding of the situation.

4. Occupational Asthma

Occupational asthma can be detected if asthma symptoms begin in adulthood or while working. Another indicator is improvement on non-working days. Triggers might vary, such as flour dust in bakeries or latex in healthcare environments.

5. Non-Allergic Asthma (Non-Atopic Asthma)

This type is not caused by common allergens such as pollen, dust mites, or pets. Also known as non-atopic asthma, it is less frequent than allergic asthma and develops later in life. If asthma symptoms don’t seem related to typical triggers, non-allergic asthma may be the cause.

6. Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS):

ACOS isn’t a separate illness; it’s when a person has both asthma and COPD symptoms, making breathing tough. Doctors use this term to figure out the best plan for treatment. Understanding the different types of asthma helps create a personalised plan that fits each person’s unique situation, making sure they get the right care.

Causes of Asthma

The causes of asthma are difficult to determine, but they appear to be a combination of environmental factors and family genetics.

1. Genetics– Asthma commonly runs in families. If a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has asthma, the chances of developing it increase. This condition appears to be inherited.

2. Allergies– People who suffer from certain types of allergies, such as hay fever or eczema, could be more likely to develop asthma. These various allergic conditions seem to have a relationship, meaning that having one type of allergy might create a pathway for the development of other allergic conditions, including asthma. 

3. Environmental Factors– Asthma is more common in cities. Several lifestyle factors connected with city living may contribute to this increased occurrence. As a result, where you live may affect your chances of getting asthma.

4. Respiratory Infections– Early exposure to certain viruses, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), can have an impact on lung development and raise the risk of asthma later in life. These infections can leave a lasting impact on the respiratory system.

5. Hygiene Hypothesis– Insufficient exposure to bacteria in early months might compromise the development of a robust immune system. This lack of early exposure could make individuals more prone to asthma and other allergies.

6. Early Life Events– Factors during early years, such as low birth weight, premature birth, exposure to tobacco smoke, and other sources of air pollution, can increase the risk of asthma. 

Signs & Symptoms of Asthma

Asthma symptoms can vary significantly between people and may worsen, resulting in asthma attacks. These symptoms can be particularly severe after exercise or at night. Asthma signs and symptoms include the following:

1. Shortness of Breath – Feeling like you can’t catch your breath is one of the main asthma symptoms.

2. Wheezing – A whistling sound when breathing out, especially noticeable in children, can indicate asthma.

3. Chest Tightness or Pain – Some may experience a sensation of pressure or discomfort in the chest.

4. Difficulty Breathing – This can occur even at rest, making each breath challenging.

5. Coughing or Wheezing Attacks – These can be triggered or worsened by respiratory viruses like colds or the flu.

6. Changes in Lung Function – Changes in lung function, measured using a peak flow metre, can indicate a worsening of asthma symptoms.

A number of things, including colds, changes in temperature, dust, smoke, fumes, pollen, animal dander, and specific smells, could worsen these symptoms. The symptoms of asthma could range from person to person and even between episodes of long-term asthma. It’s critical to understand that not everyone will have the same combination of symptoms with every asthma attack and that symptoms may change or evolve between episodes.

How Do Doctors Identify Asthma?

When it comes to figuring out if you have asthma, your healthcare provider follows a thorough process. The first thing they will ask you about is your medical history, paying attention not only to your own health story but also to details about your family, like your parents and siblings. They inquire about any history of allergies, eczema, and other lung diseases to get a complete picture.

Next up, your provider will look into your symptoms. They want to know when and how often you experience things like shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, or persistent coughing. These details will help your healthcare provider get an idea of what might be going on with your lungs. To confirm the diagnosis, your healthcare provider may order a spirometry test. It is a test that measures how air flows through your lungs. It’s a method of both diagnosing asthma and keeping tabs on how well your treatment is working.

In some cases, your provider might also suggest additional tests to rule out other potential issues. This could include a chest X-ray, blood tests, or skin tests to check for allergies. By putting together all this information, your healthcare provider can get a comprehensive understanding of your respiratory health and determine the most effective path for managing and treating your asthma. 

Treatment of Asthma

While asthma does not have a cure, there are several helpful treatments available to help control symptoms and improve quality of life. The most common approach includes using inhalers to deliver medication directly to the lungs. 

There are two primary types of inhalers-

  • Bronchodilators – (e.g., salbutamol) Open-air passages, providing relief from symptoms.
  • Steroids – (e.g., beclometasone) Reduce inflammation, improve symptoms and lessen the risk of severe attacks.

Inhalers may need to be used daily, and the choice depends on symptom frequency and available inhaler types. Using inhalers, especially in emergencies or for children, can be challenging. Spacer devices make this easier, ensuring the medication reaches the lungs effectively.

Tablets– In some cases, tablets may complement inhaler use.

  • Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists (LTRAs)– Taken daily to prevent symptoms, potential side effects include mild abdominal discomfort and headaches.
  • Theophylline– is recommended when other treatments fall short and is taken daily to prevent symptoms with potential side effects, including headaches and nausea.

Other Treatments

  • Injections– Biologic therapies through injections, given every few weeks, may be prescribed for severe asthma cases, helping to manage symptoms. However, they are specialised and not suitable for everyone.
  • Surgery– In specific situations, a procedure called bronchial thermoplasty may be considered, aiming to provide symptom control.

It’s important to note that asthma treatment varies from person to person, and individuals should consult with healthcare professionals to determine the most suitable and personalised treatment plan.

When to Seek Medical Attention for Asthma

Because a severe asthma attack can be potentially fatal, it is essential that you seek advice from a healthcare provider regarding how to manage worsening symptoms and signs. It’s critical to recognise the symptoms that indicate the need for emergency care or medical attention. The following are important signs:

1. Breathlessness During Minimal Activity

You should get medical help right away if you find yourself having trouble breathing, even after mild physical activity.

2. Lack of Improvement with Quick-Relief Inhaler

It’s important to see a doctor right away if using a quick-relief inhaler fails to bring in the expected reduction in symptoms. This can mean that your treatment strategy needs to be reviewed.

3. Sudden and Intensifying Shortness of Breath or Wheezing

A sudden and severe worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing necessitates immediate medical attention. This could be a sign of a severe asthma episode or attack.

4. During an Asthma Attack

If you experience a sudden and severe development of symptoms, including extreme difficulty breathing and chest tightness, immediate medical help is essential. In these situations, immediately contact an ambulance or go to the nearest emergency room.


If you have asthma, you know that asthma attacks can happen suddenly and be really serious. Having someone nearby who knows what to do can make a big difference and even save a life. If a security guard is faced with someone having an asthma emergency, it’s crucial for them to be knowledgeable about the signs, symptoms, and what to do in a serious situation. Security guards, often the first responders in places, can play a crucial role during asthma emergencies by quickly recognising when someone is having a tough time, responding fast, and getting help.

Multisec Training offers comprehensive training to security guards, equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to handle various situations in New South Wales. This training includes how to respond during health emergencies such as asthma attacks. By promoting these programmes, we ensure that individuals in charge of our safety are prepared for anything, including critical circumstances where every second matters.

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